持続可能な開発に関する公開作業グループ会合ー森林の行方(2014/5/31)

リオ+20を出発点とした、2015年以降の普遍的ですべての国に適用可能な一つの枠組みと一連の目標としての「持続可能な開発目標」を作成する作業が今年度末に報告書を作成することとして、進められていますが、その中で森林がどのように位置づけられるかは、持続可能な森林管理のグローバルな実現にとって重要な事項であり、このサイトでも関心をもってフォローをしてきました。(rio+20から一年)

その作業の一環としてオープンワーキンググループOWGが開催されており、各セクターごとの議論がされていますが、森林分野については2月3-7日に開催された第8回会合(海洋、森林、生物多様性の3分野に加えて公平性の確保、紛争処理という分野横断的なテーマ)で議論の場がありました。

同会合には合わせて140の文書が公表されましたが、その中で、森林を主題として提出されたものは、10ほどです。(その他に各国のステートメントで、森林分野に触れたものはありますが)

主なものを紹介します。

John Hontelez, for FSC, presentation at OWG 8, Tuesday 4 February, meeting with Major Groups.

 
 FSC proposes to build these on the Aichi Targets, adopted by almost all countries in the world in 2010. Our three proposals:
1. Goal or target on halting deforestation by 2020. Not literally Aichi Target 5, which aims halting “where possible”. We think it should be made possible with intensifying political will and international cooperation, recognising that this is of global interest.
2. Also a goal or target of 15% restoration of degraded forest lands, in line with Aichi Target 15. I refer to the Bonn Challenge, where governments and stakeholders have already committed to work to the restoration of 150 million ha in forests in 2020, which is about the 15% restoration. This objective would compensate for the forest loss of the last 20 years.
3. But we should not only focus on quantity, quality is as important. Therefore we also propose as one of the goals of targets to ensure sustainable forest management by 2020, in line with Aichi Target 7..
Whereby we propose a specific indicator in terms of the “increased use of transparent, effective, balanced multi stakeholder governed forest and chain-of custody systems, particularly in regions where forests are under most pressure”. We are convinced that such systems, such as FSC has developed, can be a reliable tool to promote sustainable forest managements, and governments have several tools to promote its success. The Biodiversity Indicators Partnership of the CBD and UNEP has already accepted FSC certification as an indicator for Aichi Target 7, on sustainable management.
Forests in a sustainable world

Daju Pradnja Resosudarmo
CIFOR

 CIFOR sees two complementary ways forward
§ Recognize forests as essential element in multiple SDGs
§ Explore Sustainable Landscapes as a crosscutting SDG, in
which forests are a major component
Women’s Major Group contribution for the Eighth Session of the Open Working

Group on the Sustainable Development Goals (OWG8)

Forests and Biodiversity

Targets include:
・ Zero loss of forest cover by 2030 (based on a definition of forests that excludesindustrial tree and shrub plantations);7
・ Zero depletion of clean freshwater resources, full protection and ambitious restorationof healthy freshwater ecosystems by 2030. This requires both the protection andrestoration of healthy ecosystems and ending over-extraction of water, especially forirrigation and water-intensive industries;
・ Zero loss of other ecosystems, including grasslands, peatlands, savannah, tundra andalpine ecosystems by 2030;
・ 50 million hectares of degraded or destroyed ecosystems restored or allowed tonaturally regenerate by 2030;
・ Phasing out all agricultural practices that cause soil erosion, depletion and compactionby 2030;

・ All potentially perverse incentives promoting unsustainable consumption andproduction patterns that might trigger biodiversity loss have been redirected oreliminated by 2030;
・ The territorial rights and customary conservation practices of Indigenous Peoples,women and local communities have been fully documented and recognized by 2030;
・ Women and men participating equally in forests and other natural resourcegovernance;
・ Free, Prior and Informed Consent of all communities, including Indigenous Peoples,
required for any projects and developments that may affect lands which they own, occupy or otherwise use.

Forests and Biodiversity

Joint position paper by members of the CBD Alliance1

and the Global Forest Coalition2

6. We strongly oppose a separate Sustainable Development Goal on Forests. Forests are an ecosystem, and should be recognized as such.
7. We also oppose any “net” goals or targets for forests, land degradation or other ecosystems. The assumption that you would be able to compensate ecosystem or soil loss at one location with ecosystem or soil restoration in another location is deeply flawed from a moral, scientific, and social justice perspective.
8. We strongly oppose the economic valorization of Nature in any given way, as pricing something ?rather then protecting it- gives it a mercantile value, and opens the door to commercializing
9. We demand that monoculture plantations, or plantations with non-native species, can in no case account as biodiversity rich areas.
10. We demand that the use of genetically modified trees is banned.
11. We demand that by 2030, all products produced on industrial scale must contain labelling information regarding:
・ Their origin and impact on Biodiversity
・ For food and other products of organic origin: the kind of soils where they were produced, production processes, etc
・ For industrthe local and globial products: impact of the industry on al environment
・ For products containing minerals: information on mining processes
・Ecological footprint of the product

 European Union and its Member States
“Oceans and seas, forests and biodiversity"
 We need to reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide and increase efforts to prevent forest degradation, halt the rate of loss of primary forests and increase significantly the areas of protected forests.
It is important to eliminate illegal logging, and associated trade, by strengthening forest governance frameworks, tenure rights and law enforcement, and increase the resource-wise use and the proportion of forest products from sustainably managed forests.
It is necessary to address the direct and indirect drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, including through the adoption of integrated land-use management and land planning.
 Foreign Ministry of Japan,  On forests, 80 percent of the species on the land are living in forests, and forests are directly linked with biodiversity. In addition, obviously forests are related to poverty eradication, water management, climate change, disaster risk reduction, and others issues. Forests are also an important element of sustainable development. Sustainable forest management is the central part of this issue, and we think that the criteria and indicators established by many fora for SFM and Global Forest Resources Management by FAO will contribute to the effective monitoring and implementation of targets for forests.
 Statement of
Eduardo Rojas-Briales
Assistant Director-General, FAO Forestry
Chair, Collaborative Partnership on Forests
 To assist you in your near-term deliberations CPF members have worked together to provide a global analysis of international instruments related to forests. Based on this analysis, we have prepared an analytical document and summary for negotiators that outline possible targets and indicators on forests in the SDGs that will be shared with you in the coming days. We hope this will help you in your deliberations.

CBD Alliance and the Global Forest Coalitionによる文書が示すように、環境NGO側から、「森林問題を生物多様性と切り離して議論しないこと」という主張がなされています。SDGsの議論で単独の森林に関する討議の場がないのは、全体として森林に関する関心が低下していることの現れを思っていましたが、そのような議論への配慮か思われます。

それはそれとして、持続可能な木材の利用を含むトータルは主張はFSCとCIFOR国際林業研究センターの二つというのも少し寂しいところです。

FSCの文書が透明性のある木材の利用促進の指標を提案しているのは重要なことです。

今回の国際林業研究センターCIFORの文書の中では具体的な提案の形になっていませんが、CIFORのピーターヘルムゲン理事長はブログの中で、森林とランドスケープに関するSGDの9の指標を提案しています。

森林の取り扱いは、生物多様性、温暖化対策、循環可能な資材の提供など持続可能な開発に向けた幅広い課題と関連しており、森林に関する独自の指標が開発されてコンセンサスが形成される必要があります。

まだ、存在がはっきりしない産業界側からの提案や、予告されているFAOとCPFの提案など積極的な議論が期待されます。

kokusai0-10(sdgs1405)